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Peoples settled in what is now Texas thousands of years before European explorers arrived in North America. Some American Indian oral histories recount how their ancestors traveled to the area by water or land. A large amount of stone artifacts made at least 16, years ago have been found in Central Texas.
For many years, scientists believed that the first Americans came from Asia 13, years ago. The discovery of these artifacts suggests that humans came to the Americas much earlier. Pre-Cloves Projectile Point. These people shared the land with mammoths, mastodons, Meet sexy girls in Tell Texas other Ice Age animals. They traveled long distances to hunt these animals with spears. They also used projectile points and other tools made of Alibates flint. Their stone tools have been found more than miles from the stone's source.
With the mammoth and many other big game species from the Ice Age extinct, the Folsom people followed large herds of bison that were larger than the bison of today. They hunted with a weapon called the atlatl and dart. This weapon system consisted of two parts: a "throwing stick" and a dart which looks similar to an arrow but was much longer.
Prehistoric hunters used atlatls to hurl these darts at their prey. They were slowly transitioning from being nomadic hunter-gatherers to farmers. They gathered various types of plant materials: seeds, roots, berries, and anything else that was edible. Striations, stains, and polish cover this limestone tool that may have been used for a variety of purposes, including grinding. More than years ago in present-day Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona, people began to grow corn, beans, and squash.
The switch from a nomadic hunter-gatherer life style to horticulture contributed to more reliable food sources and settled lifestyles. Populations grew and cultures flourished. Panther Cave Rock Art. The Pueblo people believed that caves were portals to a watery underworld. Among the artifacts found in Ceremonial Cave were a finely crafted bracelet and pendants made of shells from coastal areas hundreds of miles away. These artifacts are evidence of the vast trade routes that existed between diverse communities. Turquoise armband, — CE. The bow and arrow replaced the atlatl around C.
The new technology spread across much of North America around this time. Its precise origin is unknown, but it may have been brought into the region by new migrants. The bow was lighter and required fewer resources to make. The arrow was much more lethal than a spear because of its speed, silence, and accuracy.
Scallorn Points. It is said that Texas owes its name to the Caddo. The agriculture-based Caddoes lived in villages and large fortified towns surrounding large plazas with earthen mounds. Large settlements with mound centers like this existed up and down the Mississippi River and were interconnected through trade. One of Texas's best examples of a Caddo mound is located in present-day Cherokee County. Caddo Pot made by Jeri Redcorn, Caddo. They lived in pueblo like villages where they practiced horticulture and bison hunting.
Over a period of years, they dug hundreds of quarries for better flint to make stone tools. Pottery fragments found at Antelope Creek sites provide evidence of extensive trade. The Antelope Creek people left the area Meet sexy girls in Tell Texas around AD, perhaps because of drought conditions, disease, or the arrival of hostile Apaches to the area. Antelope Creek Pottery Sherds. Historians believe that the Apache moved down from their native territory in Canada and into North America sometime between and They belong to the southern branch of the Athabascan group, whose languages constitute a large family, with speakers in Alaska, western Canada, and the American Southwest.
By the s two groups settled in Texas — the Lipan Apache and the Mescalero. The Mescalero eventually moved on to present-day New Mexico. The arrival of the Apache would begin to alter the trade and territorial claims among the diverse tribes who had settled the area before them. On October 12, he reached the Bahamas. Six months later, he returned to Spain with gold, cotton, American Indian handicrafts, exotic parrots, and other strange beasts. His tales of the native peoples, land, and resources in North America ignited the era of Spanish colonization.
He set out with four ships and men to find a passage to the Pacific Ocean. There are few records detailing his exploration, although one Spanish document does indicate that he sailed around the coast of Florida, into the Gulf of Mexico, and up a river dotted with palm trees and the villages of native peoples. Earlier interpretations of his voyage identified this river as the Rio Grande, but later data shows that it was probably the Soto la Marina, located in Mexico.
Spanish conquests of the Americas introduced the first enslaved Africans to the region. Garrido was enslaved in the Caribbean as early as He participated in the founding of New Spain as a free man and is recognized as the first person to grow wheat in New Spain. While in Mexico City, he established a family and continued to serve with Spanish forces. Courtesy Biblioteca Nacional de Espana. His trip seemed doomed from the beginning. Many of his men died, deserted, or were killed by the American Indians whose people and villages the expedition attacked and pillaged.
He kept a detailed diary which has become an invaluable primary source describing the life and peoples of early Texas. This encounter, which Cabeza de Vaca wrote about in his diary, is the first recorded meeting of Europeans and Texas American Indians. The Karankawa were several bands of coastal people with a shared language and culture who inhabited the Gulf Coast of Texas from Galveston Bay southwestward to Corpus Christi Bay.
Estevanico was an enslaved African born Mustafa Zemmouri around On this expedition he gained great knowledge of the languages spoken by American Indians in the area. Inhe was ordered by the Spanish Viceroy to be part of a subsequent expedition.
Painting of Estavanico.
Courtesy Granger Historical Images. Conscience-stricken by the abuse of American Indians at the hands of Spanish conquistadors, he crusaded on the native peoples' behalf for over five decades. Inde las Casas participated in a debate in Oaxaca, Mexico, where he argued for the American Indians' right to be treated as individuals with dignity and against the Spanish efforts to convert native peoples to both the Catholic faith and the Spanish culture.
His blistering work inA Brief Report on the Destruction of the Indians, convinced King Charles V to outlaw the conversion practices, but riots among land holders in New Spain Mexico convinced authorities not to make any changes in their treatment of American Indians. Finding gold was one objective of Spanish colonization in North America.
Various historical s describe the soldiers' astonishment at the Texas landscape, including Palo Duro Canyon, and the huge, hump-backed cows buffalo that roamed the grasslands. Coronado never found any gold in the Panhandle, and the expedition returned to Mexico in Hernando de Soto led an exploration of the Gulf Coast area from until his death in present-day Arkansas in This expedition marked the first European crossing of the Mississippi River.
Opinions differ as to the exact route the Moscoso expedition took through Texas, but recent scholarship suggests that they traveled south from East Texas toward present-day Nacogdoches and then into the Hill Country before turning back toward the Mississippi River in Arkansas. Oil springs and tar pits were known to the Texas Indians. They used the oozings to treat Meet sexy girls in Tell Texas and skin diseases. Oil was also seen by the Spanish explorers as early as Julywhen members of the De Soto expedition saw oil floating in the water near Sabine Pass and used it to caulk their boats.
Later, settlers used surface oil for axel grease and for lighting and fuel. Courtesy U. Geological Survey. The ships, including six armed vessels, carried cargo and were headed to various parts of the world including New Spain Mexico and the Indies. On April 29,three ships were wrecked in a storm on Padre Island, near present-day Port Mansfield. In the s and s, excavation efforts retrieved thousands of artifacts such as cannons, silver coins, gold bullion, astrolabes, and tools from the wreckage of the San Esteban and the Espiritu Santo.
The third sunken ship, the Santa Maria de Yclarwas destroyed during ship channel construction in the s. The Spanish missionary system was intended to convert American Indians to Christianity and teach them how to live according to Spanish ways. Missionaries often accompanied conquistadors on their explorations in North America. The first missionaries passed through far west Texas in on their way to the pueblos of New Mexico. Though unsuccessful in establishing a colony among the Pueblo people, Spanish conquistador Antonio de Espejo left a valuable of his encounters with the Jumano people of Texas's Big Bend area in to The Jumano were trading partners of Meet sexy girls in Tell Texas Spanish for almost two centuries before famine and war sent their population into a steep decline.
They were so grateful to have survived the journey that they held what some believe was the first "thanksgiving" feast in what would become the United States. With this act, the foundation was laid for two centuries of Spanish control of Texas and the American southwest.
Spanish conquistadors first crossed Texas in search of gold in New Mexico. Bythe Spanish had established a capital at Santa Fe. Their primary goals were to convert the American Indians to Christianity and to teach them to live according to Spanish culture. The Spanish crown commissioned Franciscan friars to establish missions.
From the pueblos of New Mexico, a few priests began to venture into West Texas. Almost 50 years after their first encounter, the Jumano were revisited by the Spanish in This would mark the beginning of their relations with the Spanish. Some Jumano lived nomadic lifestyles, while others lived in more permanent houses built of reeds or sticks or of masonry, like the pueblos of New Mexico.
The Jumano were renowned for their trading and language skills. In time, these expert traders helped establish trade routes as well as diplomatic relationships among American Indians, the Spanish, and the French. Jumano, Drawing by Frank Weir. Her visions were regarded as religious miracles.
She was known as the "Woman in Blue" because of her blue Franciscan clothing. Inthey traveled to evangelize the Jumanos. They were unable to supply or defend the outpost, and after six months, they were forced to abandon the mission. This arrow point is believed to be of Jumano origin. Franciscans traveling through La Junta in performed the first Catholic mass in Texas. InFranciscans established a mission, but they were expelled after just two years.
After the revolt, Pueblo people began trading the horses they had taken control of. The acquisition of horses, and the ability to travel longer distances more easily, would transform the territorial politics between tribes throughout America. Courtesy Architect of the Capitol.
Inthe Pueblo people rose up, killed Spanish colonizers, and drove the remaining 2, Spanish out of New Mexico. The village of El Paso became the base of Spanish operations for the next 12 years. The Tonkawa belonged to the Tonkawan linguistic family that was once composed of a of small sub-tribes that lived in present-day Texas, Oklahoma, and New Mexico. The word "tonkawa" is a Waco term meaning "they all stay together.
In andthe people of La Junta near present-day Presidio petitioned for missionaries to return to their area. Bythese missions were abandoned. The Spanish began making entradas into Texas in the s. They intended to explore and expand into the far reaches of Spanish territory in order to buffer any encroachment from the French.
From tothe Spanish led roughly seven expeditions from Mexico to Texas. These early explorers brought cattle, sheep, and goats to the Texas frontier. Bythe Spanish realized the need to defend Texas against the French and blazed a network of trails from Mexico City to Louisiana. Byboth missions were abandoned.
Circa In Spanish officials in New Mexico documented the presence of numerous Comanches on the northeastern frontier of that province.
As the Comanches moved south, they came into conflict with tribes already living on the South Plains, particularly the Apaches, who had dominated the region before the arrival of the Comanches. The Apaches were forced south by the Comanche and the two became mortal enemies. Plains Indian Girl with Melon, —Meet sexy girls in Tell Texas
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