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Another factor that affects sport participation among students is gender stereotype. There is a dearth of research focusing on sport participation from the perspectives of subjective norm and gender Athletic masculine looking. As a result, the current study attempts to examine the effects of peer attitude, fear of negative evaluation, and gender stereotype on sport participation. The following sections include descriptions of the research rationales and the formation of research hypotheses.
Furthermore, research argued that participation in competitive sports tends to masculinize females Harres, These gender stereotypes indeed influence sport participation. Women who are expected to display feminine behaviors while also participating in masculine activities often face a conflicting set of roles Hannon et al. Feminine sports are those with strong aesthetic elements whereas masculine sports are those focusing on strength or strong body contact.
In addition, peer influence is critical particularly when peers provide comparisons for the assessment of personal competence Colley et al. In keeping with this theory, peer attitudes are revealed to strongly correlate with feelings of global self-esteem. In addition, Alley and Hicks further argue that gender stereotypes in certain sports may influence who elects to participate and how participants are affected by peer attitudes.
Moreover, peers also affect enjoyment by providing companionship as well as recognition of achievements Duncan, As mentioned ly, gender stereotypes for sport participation may lead to sex role conflicts. Tagg argues that many of the physical differences between men and women are emphasized by media representations. Consequently, this implies that perceived level of fear of negative evaluation may influence individuals.
While lack of literature points out the possibility of such interactions and their effects, the following examination of the literature associated with peer attitudes and fear of negative evaluation helps develop the link. Furthermore, social physique anxiety is a negative predictor of autonomous motivation and a positive predictor of amotivation and participation avoidance Cox et al.
Moreover, literature implies that peer attitudes and fear of negative evaluation may cause avoidance of sport participation. As a result, it follows that negative peer attitudes along with high levels of fear of negative evaluation lead to less intention to participate in sports.
Past literature explored these effects separately, while this research tries to investigate these variables simultaneously. Based on a thorough review of the literature, we propose the following hypotheses:.
The average age of the participants was Basketball was then used in Study 1 and aerobics in Study 2. Two-stage sampling was utilized for data collection. Study 1 included participants with males The ages of the participants in Study 1 and Study 2 ranged from 18 to 25 years old, with means of All lessons were mixed sex lessons.
Selected participants in physical education classes were well informed regarding the objectives of the current research, and they voluntarily participated in this study. We provided participants with instructions on how to complete the questionnaire and gave them the opportunity to ask questions. Moreover, participants were told that the questionnaire was to be completed individually and that talking would not be allowed until all the questionnaires were returned.
In order to ensure anonymity, the participants were not required Athletic masculine looking provide their names or other identification. More specifically, Study 1 was conducted to test hypotheses H1a, H2a, and H3a. On the other hand, the purpose of Study 2 was to investigate hypotheses H1b, H2b, and H3b using feminine sport aerobics.
Hypothesis H4 was examined in both studies. The first section included four items measuring the degree of fear of negative evaluation, modified from the work of La Greca and Lopez The second section contained three items measuring degree of peer attitudes, based on the work of Chiou, Huang, and Chuang The third section encompassed three indicators measuring intention to participate in sport, modified from the work of Kwon, Trail, and James In addition, K-mean cluster analysis was performed to divide the participants into high versus low fear of negative evaluation as well as positive versus negative peer attitudes.
SPSS Independent sample t tests were executed to examine whether the grouping was effective for both studies.
The Table 2 demonstrated that Study 1 t values range from 7. Gender stereotype effect on sport participation was clearly found, i. The indicate that our society maintains gender stereotypes associated with participation in certain sports, which exerts impact on the willingness of individuals to participate in certain sports. Due to gender stereotypes, individuals may be filtered out from participating in certain sports. More specifically, males with positive peer attitudes are more likely than males with negative peer attitudes to participate in masculine sports whereas females with positive peer attitudes are more Athletic masculine looking than females with negative peer attitudes to participate in feminine sports.
The current research, however, delves into the moderating effect of peer attitudes on the relationship between gender stereotypes and sport participation. The moderating effect of peer attitudes on the relationship between gender stereotypes and sport participation is one of the contributions of the present research. Females with high fear of negative evaluation are less likely than females with low fear of negative evaluation to participate in masculine sports while males with high fear of negative evaluation are less likely than males with low fear of negative evaluation to participate in feminine sports.
More specifically, individuals tend to avoid gender-inappropriate sports when experiencing high fear of negative evaluation. Athletic masculine looking contribution of the current research involves the demonstration of the moderating role of fear of negative evaluation on the relationship between gender stereotypes and sport participation. When incorporated into a single model, peer attitudes and fear of negative evaluation demonstrate no interactive effect on the intention to play Athletic masculine looking. The of this research add to the discussion, in the field of sport participation, of the gender stereotypes effect, as well as the moderating effects of peer attitudes and fear of negative evaluation.
However, while the current research used only two sports basketball and aerobicsthese two sports act as baselines for masculine sports and feminine sports, which eliminates the potential bias that may occur when using only one sport either masculine or feminine. Investigation of the issues presented in this study in regard to other sports may be a fruitful topic for future study.
Additionally, more rigorous methodologies may be considered for future studies, such as true experimental des and multiple regression analyses. Teachers should educate and encourage students to actively participate in sports regardless of whether the sport is perceived to be masculine or feminine. We conducted two separate studies to examine the posited hypotheses. A two-stage sampling method was utilized for data collection with valid selfadministered survey questionnaires collected.
The findings revealed that males are more likely than females to participate in masculine sports, while females are more likely than males to participate in feminine sports. In addition, males with positive peer attitudes are more likely than males with negative peer attitudes to participate in masculine sports.
Females with high fear of negative evaluation are less likely than females with low fear of negative evaluation to participate in masculine sports. Accueil Revues Revue internationale de psychologie Gender stereotype, fear of negative evaluation, and sport 7 Fear of negative evaluation may be a factor that influences sports participation. Participants and procedures 21 A total of college students were recruited for the present study from four universities in Taiwan.
Measures 24 A self-administered survey questionnaire containing four sections with twelve items was used. Descriptive statistics of the constructs 26 Table 1 showed satisfactory construct validity as well as internal consistency for both Study 1 and Study 2. Table 1. Fear of Negative Evaluation. Descriptive statistics of the constructs in the present study Note. Table 2. Descriptive statistics of the grouping Note. M represents mean, H high, L low, P positive, N negative.
Table 3. Source df F p Gender A 1 Analysis of variance for Study 1.
Table 4. Means and standard deviations italics of intention to play basketball in Study 1 Note. Table 5. Analysis of variance for Study 2. Table 6.
Means and standard deviations italics of intention to play aerobics in Study 2 Note. Keywords gender-stereotype fear of negative evaluation peer attitudes sport participation. Gender stereotype and sport Gender stereotype, peer attitudes, and sport Gender stereotype, fear of negative evaluation, and sport Peer attitudes, fear of negative evaluation, and sport Hypotheses Method Preliminary study Participants and procedures Measures Data analysis Descriptive statistics of the constructs Hypotheses testing Discussion.
References Alley, T.Athletic masculine looking
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The Female/Athlete Paradox: Managing Traditional Views of Masculinity and Femininity